Genome Sequencing with Graph Elements

Arnav Gattu1


1Newark Memorial High School, Newark, California, United States.

Abstract: DNA sequencing is the process of ordering the nucleotides in a piece of DNA. Each of the four existing nucleotides is identified with one of the four letters A, C, G, T. Sequencing a genome is quite challenging. It requires breaking the DNA of the genome into many smaller pieces, aligning and merging the pieces, and reconstructing them into a one long genome in proper order. Since the completion of the human genome project, technological improvements have accelerated the speed of genome sequencing and made it less expensive. This study presents a method of reconstructing the genome from its smaller sequences or reads using algorithms based on graph theory. Reconstructing a genome is an important step in understanding the pattern of letters of the genome sequence, functions of genes, relation between genes, and how they all work together. This understanding of the genome sequence of different species, including plants leads to many applications, medicines, and vaccines as seen in the current Covid-19 pandemic.
Keywords: DNA sequencing, Covid-19, Graph Elements.


Cite this article as: Arnav Gattu, Genome Sequencing with Graph Elements, Int. J. Math. And Appl., vol. 9, no. 2, 2021, pp. 81-90.

References
  1. L. Hood and D. Galas, The digital code of DNA, Nature, 421(2003), 444-448.
  2. A. J. Marian, Sequencing Your Genome: What Does It Mean?, Methodist Debakey Cardiovascular Journal, 10(1)(2014), 3-6.
  3. A. M. Maxam and W. Gilbert, A new method of sequencing DNA, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 74(1977), 560-564.
  4. F. Sanger and A. R. Coulson, A rapid method for determining sequences in DNA by primed synthesis with DNA polymerase, J. Mol. Biol., 94(1975), 444-448.
  5. H. Chial, DNA sequencing technologies key to the Human Genome Project, Nature Education, 1(1)(2008), 219.
  6. A. Regalado, China's BGI says it can sequence a genome for just {\textbackslash} \$100, MIT Technology Review, 26(2020).
  7. S. Behjati and P. S. Tarpey, What is next generation sequencing?, Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed., 98(6)(2013), 236-238.
  8. N. G. de Bruijn, A Combinatorial Problem, Proceedings of the Section of Sciences of the KoninklijkeNederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, 49(7)(1946), 758-764.

Back